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Climate Change

Measures to control the carbon emissions of the civil aviation and Argentine foreign trade

Publication´s date: 
Oct 2014
Author: 
Carlos Galperín, María Victoria Lottici, Carlos Vallarino y Laura Daicz
This article analyzes the measures that are at stake to control the greenhouse gas emissions of the international civil aviation and their relationship with the Argentine foreign trade. In matters of international negotiations, debate is taking place at ICAO regarding the application of measures based on market criteria. These measures could be similar to the mechanisms set at international levels by the Kyoto Protocol and those in force at the national level in some economies, particularly, in the European Union. In negotiations within ICAO’s scope, what can be appreciated are: cross influences between the regional measures (those of the EU) and negotiations at international fora; actions by negotiating partnerships (of developing countries in particular); and a discussion regarding the application of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Although a market-based measure would affect a small proportion of Argentine foreign sales –since only 3.5% of the exports are sent by plane– what takes place at ICAO’s negotiations could be taken as a model for the negotiations related to the maritime transport, which would in fact affect Argentine exports in a clear manner.
Type: 
ARTICLE
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The costs of the measures to control greenhouse gas emissions borne by the Argentine air transport.

Publication´s date: 
Mar 2015
Author: 
Carlos Galperín, Arturo Lewinger, María Victoria Lottici y Laura Daicz
This article estimated the potential cost for the Argentine air transport of the application of the emission trading system, currently being under discussion at the ICAO pursuant to the draft in force as of December 2014, as well as that derived from the waiver of the suspension of extra-community flights from the European Union regime. The cost for Aerolíneas Argentinas of applying the EU regime could be almost 10 times bigger than the one that would derive from applying the ICAO’s mechanism. This is due to the fact that the EU compels the compensation of the overall figure of the emissions made, whereas the ICAO mechanism would only compensate the emissions surpassing certain level of reference. This difference could be reduced in two thirds as long as Aerolíneas obtains free emission rights by the EU. The difference in costs shows the importance of the UE’s threat in case of not reaching an agreement at the ICAO. Adopting the ICAO’s option would have the additional cost of setting a precedent for the negotiation of the International Maritime Organization and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Type: 
ARTICLE
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“Green trade protectionism”: an analysis of three new issues that affect developing countries

Author: 
María Victoria Lottici - Carlos Galperín - Julia Hoppstock
The environment is increasingly being used to justify protectionist measures that enjoy greater social legitimacy. In the last years new issues have been included and in this study we will analyse three of them: green growth and green economy, climate change response measures, and the liberalisation of environmental goods and services. These new issues are used both to apply barriers to the goods and services coming from developing countries and to enhance the access of developed countries’ exports of industrial products. All this ends up in a “green protectionism” which is aimed at improving the trade balance of developed countries, especially in relation to developing countries. In the multiple forums where these topics are being debated, Argentina has claimed that these issues should neither result in a green protectionism nor encourage policies that constitute disguised restrictions on international trade, which would be inconsistent with the multilateral trading system and with the international environmental law, in particular with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
Type: 
ARTICLE
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