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Help us identify export barriers

Publication´s date: 
Aug 2017
If you spot any barrier to your operations of goods exports, please report it by filling in the form below and emailing it to: barreras@cancilleria.gob.ar. We will be able to find the best solution to it together.
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Results of the inventory of Argentine export barriers

Publication´s date: 
Aug 2017
A total of 46% of our exports are subject to measures that tend to hamper access to foreign markets. Likewise, 60% of exporting companies in Argentina sell products that are covered by some of the measures under this inventory.
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Trade liberalization within the framework of Global Value Chains

Publication´s date: 
Oct 2014
Author: 
Gabriel Michelena
In recent years, and from the new prevailing paradigm of Global Value Chains (GVCs), the WTO, the OECD and UNCTAD have recommended the countries to reduce the cost of imported inputs, so as to improve competition and stimulate exports. Nevertheless, the recent literature on the subject has systematically ignored the general equilibrium effects when insisting on unilateral tariff reduction as a means to foster exports and economic growth. When the macroeconomic effects on income and global demand are taken into account, the general conclusions set forth by GVC advocates are only supported under very special assumptions and presuppose a quite unlikely macroeconomic configuration. Driven by these considerations, this article develops a stock-flow consistent model that takes into account the existing relationship between trade policy, foreign competition and income level.
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In depth-analysis of the WTO Dispute Settlement Body: a quantitative characterization of the system 20 years after its inception

Publication´s date: 
Oct 2014
Author: 
Laura Daicz, Carlos Galperín, Federico Lavopa y Adriana Molina
This work analyzes, from a quantitative perspective, the cases initiated and dealt with within the framework of the WTO Dispute Settlement System. For that reason, a data base was created systematically incorporating all the relevant details of the controversies started at this System since its enforcement. One of the main objectives of this paper is to assess whether the System shows any bias acting contrary to developing countries’ needs. The main results obtained from the analysis of the data show that developing countries have been increasing their participation in the System as complainants and respondents; that the most cited regulations refer to trade defence measures; that the greatest proportion of cases involve industrial products; that developing countries have received more claims for industrial than for agricultural and fisheries products; that the decisions of the Panel and of the Appellate Body are slightly biased against developing countries, both considering the global results and those referred to the claims; and that the “extra juridical” solutions have demonstrated to play an important role in the System’s functioning.
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The D-cycle: deficit, debt and default in developing countries under the current global economic order

Publication´s date: 
Mar 2015
Author: 
Francisco Mango y Enrique Aschieri
This article aims at investigating the reasons why, with few exceptions, debts accumulated by developing countries could not be paid off during the second half of the 20th century, at least in the sense given by Keynes referred to the fact that they are effectively cancelled as long as they are repaid with countries’ resources. In a fiduciary international monetary system where developed countries’ currency units act as reserves, developing countries’ own resources are basically constituted by positive results in their balance of trade. Nevertheless, the global economic order prevailing, with some shades, as an aftermath of war, succeeded in consolidating developed countries’ protectionist schemes, whose import expenditures are the main means through which developing countries can effectively cancel their debt commitments, in Keynes’ sense. Within this framework, the current global economic order promotes the formation of a recurrent medium-term cycle in the dynamics of growth of developing countries, which in the present work will be defined as the D-cycle: deficit, debt and default. Given the protectionism present in developed countries, this cycle begins with a first stage where developing countries must become indebted so as to be able to cover the demand for imports that are vital for their economic growth. The cycle follows with a second stage, in which indebtedness persists but it is directed towards financing mainly the repayment of the debt previously accumulated and, to a lesser degree, essential imports, thus resigning economic growth. In the last stage, suffocated by the burden of foreign debt services and the need to resume growth, developing countries incur default of one part of their obligations, which implies more than simply default on payment.
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It takes three to tango: trade imbalances at the Eurozone

Publication´s date: 
Mar 2015
Author: 
Pablo Bortz
The trade imbalances at the Eurozone for the 2000-2012 period are analyzed in this paper. A critical analysis of the different explanations focusing on the divergent course of labour costs and other indicators of price competitiveness is introduced here. These variables give rise to interpretations that are compatible with those of European authorities and of more heterodox currents as well. In contrast, this article emphasizes on the role of productive structures, specialization patterns and the different growth rates of domestic demand, both of Eurozone Members and of trade partners outside said monetary union. The findings aim at a more disaggregate view of intraregional trade as well as at an approach that incorporates factors related to capital movements and the performance of some emerging countries with high growth rates in recent years.
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The Marshall-Lerner condition and exchange market stability. A theoretical note

Publication´s date: 
Mar 2015
Author: 
Mariano de Miguel
This theoretical note is aimed at reconsidering the Marshall-Lerner condition (M-L) in the version that is usually presented in texts and manuals on the matter, so as to make clear some of its main assumptions and assess the extent to which the condition is altered when these assumptions are modified. If the currency adjustment is ignored by means of a contraction in domestic economic activity –giving the model an overt sense of unreality, but being very useful for a fundamental analysis– the M-L condition will depend on the absolute value of foreign trade elasticities. A non-gravitating country in global supply and demand of exports and of imports faces a less-restrictive M-L condition; nonetheless, that does not judge on the convenience of a devaluation policy as a tool to improve foreign trade balance. With reduced foreign trade elasticities, low unemployment and wage resistance, the size of the required nominal devaluation can bring about unnecessarily high costs that are consequently unjustifiable. The analysis of the terms of trade determinants, in their mercantile and factorial versions, comes up as an axis for prospective research, due to its relevance in the final expression of the M-L condition and in the degrees of foreign freedom that countries possess to exercise an autonomous and self-centred economic policy. The pessimism in foreign trade elasticities is the reverse side of the optimism in revaluation.
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The G20 and the results of the Los Cabos Summit

Author: 
Hugo Gobbi - Julieta Grande - Carolina Fernández
This paper intends to analyse the agreements reached at the G20 Summit which took place on 18 and 19 June 2012 in Los Cabos, Mexico, in the light of the current international context and of Argentina’s position and interests in the forum. Argentina’s participation in the G20 is both an important foreign policy challenge and an opportunity to advance the interests of our country in a range of issues on the international agenda and to strengthen political coordination with other emerging countries. During 2012, Mexico, which is in charge of the G20’s rotating presidency, presented an orthodox agenda, influenced by the view of organisations such as the OECD and the IMF. Some of the topics that were put forward included fiscal consolidation and structural adjustment as ways to recover from the economic crisis, and the across-the-board introduction of the concept of “green growth” in the different G20 working groups. Our country, together with other emerging countries, did not agree with this initial view and thus coordinated positions that slowly generated consensus so that the Los Cabos Declaration, signed by the G20 Leaders in June 2012, contains elements of interest for Argentina. In this sense, it is worth highlighting that the language calling for strategies toward strong, sustainable and balanced growth as well as job creation became the cornerstones of the Declaration. Moreover, the importance of investing in infrastructure—which is considered by our country as a key countercyclical instrument to overcome the development gap—was stressed. Additionally, with regard to international trade, the commitment to conclude the Doha Round in accordance with its mandate was reiterated. Lastly, the concept of “green growth” was finally reformulated to highlight the social dimension of development; it was also recognized that this concept should not be used as an excuse to introduce new obstacles to trade. (Full text only available in Spanish).
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